"Retirement is defined as the termination of gainful work that is, of activities one of whose aims is that of obtaining wealth, profit or other social rewards." With this definition, Dr Shenk proceeds with her study of retirement and its effects on a specific ethnic community within the United States, the Lebanese-Americans. While traditional sociocultural attitudes toward aging and the elderly are positive and sympathetic among Lebanese, these attitudes are not necessarily the views of the larger, non-ethnic American population - a situation already setting up contraries in a delicate area. The Lebanese-American, for example, is unhappy with the income social Security payments provide upon retirement in the US: the money is not adequate to support the quality of life these people had expected. For analytic purposes, this study is divided into four phases: (1) preparation and anticipation; (2) the actual moment of withdrawal from the active labour force; (3) initial adjustment to the new way of life; and (4) the patterned, established retirement itself. An important element in all of this is the changing patterns within the host community - the US - where retirement does not necessarily mean the end of useful activities, that the new retiree may very well elect to continue in some active, even gainful activity. Leisure, care of the elderly, mobility, and aging and retirement of women are also discussed - all of this supported by a careful description of the Lebanese in history and as emigrants to America.
This book analyzes heroin users and the drug subculture on the Shetland Islands, an area known for its geographical remoteness, rural character and relative wealth. It fills the scientific gap created by the conventional research in heroin research, which is usually conducted in urban areas and relies on treatment and prison populations. Based on qualitative, in-depth interviews with twenty-four heroin users, this book depicts and analyzes the nature and historical development of the local heroin scene. It illustrates the features and internal structures of the subculture, and it examines the manner in which both are influenced by the location-specific geographical, cultural and socio-economic conditions. It thus reveals complex causal associations that are hard to recognize in urban environments. Complete with a list of references used and recommendations for future research, this book is a vital tool for progressive and pragmatic approaches to policy, intervention and research in the field of illicit drug use.
The question whether the European Community should intervene in the economic process, and if so, to what extent, has been the subject of public debate for many years. This study describes and gives an analysis of the manner and extent to which the European Community intervenes in the automobile industry through legal measures. The focus is on those provisions of the EC Treaty and the multiple Community legal measures that constitute the Community legal framework within which the automobile industry must operate. This study gives an introduction to the automobile industry and the EC Treaty and examines a selection of the multiple Community measures that have significant implications for the automobile industry. Important examples of such measures are:the rules on type approvalregistration of automobilesroadworthiness testsinternal taxation, environmentthe common rules on imports and exportsdistribution and servicingstate aid measuresconcentrations and cooperationthe various Community measures aimed at strengthening the competitiveness of the Community's automobile industryThis study shows that the Community, and the Commission in particular, is increasingly making use of the various competences provided by the EC Treaty to intervene in the automobile industry. This development is further stimulated by the gradual internationalisation, or even globalisation, of the world economy. In addition, this study indicates that there is a need for a much more unambiguous, coherent and transparent legal framework within which the automobile industry must operate.
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